Monday, 11 June 2018

Tui's Thorneycroft 154 engine is for sale

Our trusted marine mechanic and Humber Cruising Association member John Foster is fitting a new Beta 50. Meanwhile the Thorneycroft 154 (BMC 2.5) engine is advertised for sale on "Boats and Outboards" here.

Photos of it coming out a few years ago and on a trailer. Also comes with box of spares and paper manuals.

Saturday, 23 September 2017

Marine or Ham MF/HF radio?

I posted this on the Facebook forum Offshore SSB Radio and Email
and I thought it might be worth posting here as well

If you need an HF/MF radio for safety because of the area where you cruise, specifically sea areas A2-A4 (out of VHF range), you need it to be DSC equipped, which basically means an (Icom) M801 or M802 at the moment. The reason is that you can call for help to ships outside VHF range and they keep a continuous automatic watch on DSC MF/HF. If you have that need, and hence get the marine radio, you can use the same radio on ham frequencies if you have an amateur license. They are not quite as good as a ham radio as they are more awkward to use for spinning the tuning knob to find some one transmitting, but they will do. There is loads you can do with a ham radio (or a marine radio on ham frequencies). Ham nets, Winlink mail, sailldocs, loads of different ways of position reporting like robust packed APRS and WSPR. You can talk to random hams around the world and they will think its cool to be talking to someone "Maritime Mobile". Of course some of this definitely contributes to safety as well as fun. For those thinking of taking their ham license it is well worth it if only that you understand radio including propagation and fault fixing much better than a typical course for a Long Range Certificate that qualifies you to operate a marine MF/HF radio (even when this qualification is very serious, like in the UK, with a long practical test by the CG, mainly on distress procedures and a written exam). There are also email services (sailmail) and nets for cruisers on marine HF frequencies. I think this is where cruisers are tempted to, often illegally, use a ham radio only not a marine one. It is usually possible to open them to transmit on these bands. A slight word of caution that the performance might not be the same as on ham bands for which the radio was optimised. Also if you had a ham radio on board it would be a wise precaution to open it to marine (and aviation) MF/HF bands just in case. But these days there are very few places where anyone maintains a listening watch on marine MF/HF voice frequencies. You may well be better off shouting for help on a popular ham frequency and asking them to relay it to a MRCC by telephone in that situation.

Saturday, 9 September 2017

Whitby - there be Whales!

When we were in Hull for repairs Specksioneer, a large motor sailor ketch was waiting to be hauled out. We met her skipper Brian who runs Whitby Whale  Watching. He explained first week of September is the peak in the season for seeing minke whales off Whitby...and so we hatched a plan. It had been a busy summer with Sarah's choir tour in Cost  Rica, and conferences in San Diego and Copenhagen. None of which we sailed to. So it was nice to get a bit of time on Tui as well.

We had an 8 hour run to Scarborough. Literally a  run with the Genoa poled out. We were pleasantly surprised that with care we can get in to Scarborough at low water neaps. I thought it was much less accessible.

Whitby was only three hours further up the coast and as usual the bridge keeper, the harbour master and the marina all work together to make sure you know where you are going.

We noticed that the river Esk above the viaduct looks suddenly very rural so we took the dinghy up stream and were rewarded with the sight of fiver herons, and egret and a king fisher catching a fish.

We could see from Maine Traffic that Specksioneer tended to go about 7.5 nm off shore for both morning and evening tours. We decided to do the same and as we passed Specksioneer in the harbour Brian said to call on VHF ch 8 when we were both out there. We learnt that the herring spawn at this time of year and everyone is out to eat them! We saw minke whales surface  a few times as well as seals and lots of sea birds. It was a great day for wild life watching - and a bad day to be a herring!
The poster for Whitby Whale watching

When the wind turned we headed back, stopping again at Scarborough where we saw a harbour porpoise.

With a beam or close reach, and the tide against us more than with us it took 9 hours back to Grimsby timed nicely with the lock on free flow. Unfortunately one mile of the Fish Dock our engine suddenly stopped. We had 40 gallons of fuel so I knew it wasn't that.  Cranking the engine to try to restart melted the cable terminal on the starer motor solenoid. We called the CG to tell them of the situation before it developed in to anything dangerous, put up the mizzen and unfurled some genoa so we could heave to. A friendly wind cat Eden Rose kept station with us and could not tow us to Fish Dock as they were too wide, but offered to tow us to Victoria Dock. We could have sailed to anchorage like spurn point. But no guarantee I could fix the engine at anchor.  The CG called Clethorpes Inshore life boat who came very quickly. We sailed closer to the lock then they towed us in to moor on the fuelling jetty at HCA. A nice piece of towing with a small inflatable and a 40hp outboard. Once there the problem was found to be a fuel blockage in the primary filter (as well as the burnt out cable on the starter)
The crew of the Cleethorpes RNLI D-class lifeboat James Burgess II

Saturday, 1 July 2017


Our Simpson Lawrence  Horizon 1500 anchor windlass has been a pain since I got Tui. It has an annoying habit of letting the anchor go when its part way up. I had it serviced before leaving Conwy but that seemed to make it worse.  Richard at Kildale Marine in Hull was tremendously helpful. I thought I would need a new one. "No" he said "Built like s brick shit house. You should just fix it". He and Chris looked up an original manual and explained the exploded diagram. First they explained some twit had greased the conical clutch...and how to degrease it. I tested it with a bucket of water on the anchor chain as a load as Chris suggested. It slipped still so they explained how to get the ratchet palls. These were stuck I just needed to free them and oil them lightly. Works fine now.

Saturday, 12 November 2016

AVRT5 self contained APRS Tracker

The AVRT5 is a self contained VHF transceiver, GPS, APRS transponder and Terminal Node controller.

I tested it up on the moors on the way to the boat too.

A what? It gives out a VHF signal on the 2m amateur radio band including its position and this is picked up by other stations and repeated until it (hopefully) gets to one connected to the internet. This means you can  track it. In particular on which also tracks ships on AIS.

It is very good value at under £UK 78 on ebay.  But it is a bit of a devil to configure. The documentation is in Chinese. But even if you read Chinese it is probably hard. Fortunately there is an Yahoo group (the unit is also sold as an AP510) that has the latest version of the software and other files (you need to update the firmware). There are also videos on YouTube to help.

The interface software that you need to set the parameters (like your ham call sign and the frequency) runs on Windows. It runs with the same amount of installation difficulty on Linux under Wine (mainly finding missing DLL and OCX  files from Visual Basic which you have to put in various Windows System folders).

It comes with a little stumpy antenna. This will just about get your signal to the next room. So when you have figured out how to use it get a better antenna! The SMA connector is a little fiddly as the collar rotates when you screw in the connector.

Mine is currently on Tui at Humber Cruising Association. Here we are on It is currently using a dipole antenna from Sotabeams made for plastic tubing bungeed to a stanchion.

You can even send one line emails over APRS - in this case using the app APRSdroid connected to the AVRT5 over Bluetooth. The GPS also stores position on a micro SD card.  It has a rechargable battery built in , charged by USB.  The battery certainly lasts a few hours but I have not tested that.

Sunday, 18 September 2016

Netherlands trip August 2016

Photos from our trip to the Netherlands. Lowestoft, IJmuiden, Amsterdam, Medemblik, Den Helder Grimsby

I will put in captions in a later edit

Approaching IJmuiden

The North Sea Canal

In Six Haven Marina Amsterdam. Its always full but the harbour master always fits you in.

Heron watches us from a rooftop in Six Haven

Mike modified our folding bike "Little Nellie" as a beer carrier

The wind was low, time to do some splicing

Or put up mode sails!

Saturday, 17 September 2016

Man overboard beacons and recievers

What should your crew  carry in a pocket or on their life jacket in case they fall overboard when on watch alone?  First rule on Tui is to fasten your tether on at night and if you leave the sea. Next rule is if you are above decks alone to have our McMurdo Smart Find S10  AIS MOB beacon in your pocket. This is one of the first such AIS devices. It is waterproof to diving standards. It has three main drawbacks. It requires manual activation which means the crew overboard needs to be conscious and activate it in that window of opportunity while their hands are still usable. It needs to be held out of the water and this is going to be difficult to do for long as cold means you loose feeling in your arms. It has a non-replaceable battery so when it expires it becomes landfill (I wonder when they will run out of MMSI numbers or if they will recycle the numbers when their life ends?).

Another possibility is to carry a PLB which has a 406MHz transmitter and usually a GPS that sends an alert to the rescue control centre as well as a 121.5 MHz homing beacon so SAR aircraft and lifeboats can home in on you when they reach your last reported position. Carrying a PLB in your pocket is going to be your only hope if you are single handed and fall out of your boat. In that case I hope you are wearing a dry suit if you are offshore, otherwise this PLB is likely to just help recover your body. Within coastal regions and up to helicopter range offshore it is going to give you a fighting chance of being rescued alive. SAR aircraft like HMCG helicopters have a sophisticated direction finding receiver that can give a bearing to the 121.5 beacon as well as decode the position and velocity data the PLB is transmitting to the satellite. Altitude helps and while the 121.5 homing signal will be heard by airliners in something like a 35nm radius. I confirmed with a friend of mine who is a BA pilot that they regularly here the rising tone of a 121.5 beacon, which could be an aircraft ELT (the aviation version of an EPIRB), a ship's EPIRB or a 121.5 beacon that are still used as MOB (man overboard) beacons on oil rigs, offshore wind farms and ships. The procedure for the airline crew is they note the position when they first hear the beacon and when they last hear it. The line perpendicular to the flight path half way between these two points gives an approximate position line (you could also find the distance by Doppler shift but I don't think they do that). They are obliged to report this to local air traffic control. Sometimes if the beacon is not failing they send a crew member to check their own ELTs have not gone off!. It is not clear what air traffic control do with this information, or if they pass it to a RCC if they will do anything without some other evidence of a ship or aircraft in trouble. I expect they get a lot of false alarms especially now with so many PLBs. One reason for introduction of 406 beacons is that they have a unique serial number and are registered so if they go off in a non-emergency they know who to look for. Interestingly airliner have more than one VHF radio transceiver and typically will be monitoring 121.5 all the time, perhaps some smaller aircraft will as well. In the UK there is a national "D and D" (Distress and Diversion) control who can immediately triangulate any 121.5 transmission in UK airspace using direction finding receivers. However this only works above a certain altitude so not much good to us folks at sea level.

AIS beacons are now available which activate automatically with the life jacket. Crucially they are fastened to what will be the highest point on and deploy their antenna automatically. For any boat that has an AIS receiver this is a pretty good idea. The beacon appears as a special symbol on the chart plotter (assuming that is modern and linked) and the AIS display gives the position, bearing and velocity of the casualty. Some systems will sound an alarm of they detect a MOB beacons. They will work within a few miles (PBO tests over open water found x miles). This gives a reasonable chance of the remaining crew finding their way back to the casualty. Even if you are out of range before the crew member is noticed missing you can retrace your course until you are in range and easily home in on them.  Also other vessels nearby will have AIS receivers and may pick up the crew member from the water first. Of course by no means all vessels are fitted with AIS, or will have it on or will pay attention to it. But it is mandatory on ships.  So AIS is great and ships will find you. But aircraft other than SAR aircraft will not (HMCG helicopters even have AIS transponders so we can see them zipping across our chart plotters).

The RhoTheta RT-100 121.5MHz beacon watch receiver. It needs an antenna on the BNC connector on the top and 12-24v power through the 9-pin D-sub at the bottom.
So why not have belts and braces and have an AIS and PLB combined? Or one of each in your pocket. It would be good to be seen by planes and ships, as well as the MRCC know your position and that you were in distress. One limitation is that by law 406 PLBs cannot be water activated. Bigger EPIRBs can be deployed from a hydrostatic release if a ship sinks so you could I suppose strap one of those to your leg (joking). The reason of course is the false alarm rate would be too high when a life jacket with a built in PLB gets wet. An AIS beacon is technically not actually a distress beacon. It says "I am here" but as far as IMO etc regulations are concerned it is not a distress message. Not that I mean watch officers will ignore the life belt symbol on their chart plotter it is more just that AIS took off so quickly that regulations have not caught up.

You can however have a 121.5 beacon that is water activated and they are in common use. It is common for vessels and rigs to have a 121.5 MOB beacon such as a Sea Marshal PLB-8 fitted in life jackets. These units are water activated and the antenna is like a light emitting necklace around the casualty's neck. Typical receivers include the simple RhoTheta RT-100 which is a 121.5 watch receiver that triggers an alert if it detects the alarm tone on 121.5 (or can be set top pick up anything on 121.5 including pilots calling Mayday, or more likely a test PAN message). While this unit does not have direction finding abilities (unless you hook it up to a directional antenna such as a Yagi-Uda) you can find the casualty  the same way that I described aircraft finding a position line. Or more specifically you steam in a straight line and wait for the signal strength to increase. If it does not turn through 180. Note the position (or distance run) between points of the same signal strength between where it increases and decreases. The mid point, where the signal is maximum, is the closest approach. Go back to this point and choose one of the two perpendicular directions to your previous path. If the casualty is not moving and your readings are accurate you are on an intercept course. But if you can't see the person in the water at the strongest signal of this second course repeating the procedure will home in on them.
The Adcock directional antenna on an RNLI all weather life boat. Probably the antenna is used with RhoTheta direction finding unit that can give a bearing to 121.5 MHz beacon or a marine VHF signal.

It is easier using a directional reviver. RhoThea make units that use a fixed Adcock antenna array. Rather than physically rotating a directional antenna this has four equally spaced antennas and the rotation is done electronically, typically with a display using a circle of LEDs or a digital readout of bearing.This type of system is sometimes called "virtual Doppler", and radio hams make their own for radio direction finding.

My ACR Vecta2 hand held directional 121.5 receiver. It comes in a Pelicase with a test beacon that transmits on 121.775 MHz and 243.550 Mhz (which means it leaks the second harmonic really). The locater has two channels one of which is the test frequency. It has a nice signal strength display on two ranges as well as a built in speaker and headphone jack. For a vertical antenna you would hold it with the antennas vertical so polarized the same way.

 Simpler and cheaper units include the Vetca hand held directional receiver. This is a small directional antenna fitted to a hand held receiver. One simply moves the antenna around until the maximum signal is found and takes the approximate bearing. You can either steam on a course perpendicular to this until you get another bearing and then plot them on a chart, or you can just home in following the maximum signal. A weaker signal might be harder to take a bearing on so a more elaborate search patter may be needed.

Not many pleasure craft will carry 121.5 directional equipment but RNLI All Weather lifeboats all do. Now that these 121.5 MOB beacons are set to be slowly replaced by AIS units as they come up for service the direction finding equipment is coming on to ebay at prices within reach of parsimonious yotties. They also have the advantage that you can find people in the water with a PLB yourself. If you are offshore the vessel best placed to rescue the MOB is the boat they fell off. But relying on the 406 system may not be much help. The MRCC knowns where your casualty is and that they activated a PLB. They need to find a vessel nearby and divert it to look for you. large ships will have regular position updates and can be contacted by INMARSAT. Officially an MRCC could use HF radio telephony, sending a DSC alert to a geographic area and seeing who replies. Many MRCCs including those in the UK have abandoned HF. This means they can only contact larger ships. These ships might contact smaller vessels in the area using VHF. But this will all take a few hours before anything happens and possibly days before anyone gets there to find a dead body in the water. So with the limitation that it cannot be automatically activated and the casualty has to be able to manually activate it it would be good it their own boat could locate the PLB. So carrying a 121 receiver seems like a good idea. In fact any airband radio would work, and one with a simple Yagi antenna would be better. Here is an example of a home made Yagi Or get a Theta RT-100 if you can. Mine was £50 on ebay. Then it can be on all the time and auto alert.

Even better but not so easy yet is to pick up the 406MHz signal from your boat. The better PLBs that have GPS unit in them transmit the position
using a simple encoding.  A cheap UHF receiver can be obtained that picks up 406 can be obtained. For example many hand held ham radios such as the ultr cheep vhf/uhf offerings of Baofeng will do . The data is encoded using Manchester code  decoding software for a PC is cheap to buy too see COAA EPIRB plotter for example  or MultiPSK.  People have success using the cheap software defined radios that are sold as USB TV receivers to receive EPIRB signals

 In principle you can find the PLB just like a AIS beacon this way. Before long we will have 406 beacon decoders readily available. Micro Technologies made a tiny one used to test beacons (but they may have gone out of business). I  just found a company called Stanguard makes a neat self contained EPIRB receiver decoder. Still a bit pricey at £495 +VAT but includes antenna and receiver. If you want to make your own you could follow the instructions of the French radio amateur (and Maker ExtraordinaireF6HCC . He uses an embedded microprocessor to decode the signal and a small LCD display. As a receiver he uses any scanner or ham hand held transceiver for which you can get a discriminator output and pick up 406MHz. Interestingly it also decodes ARGOS satellite positioning beacons used to track animals and fishing boats on 401MHz (the protocol is similar).

With the idea in mind that some ships and planes can locate on 121.5 and some with AIS why not have a water activated 121.5 and AIS MOB beacon without a 406 beacon? Well Sea Marshall already have it. but at £349+VAT too expensive for me to buy one for each crew member at the moment. I expect the next step, if regulations allow, will be such a beacon with a manual 406 activation. Military pilot emergency radios exist with this (and more capabilities) but I expect Sea Marshall are working on it for commercial marine use.

There are also now beacons that as well as AIS are capable of sending a DSC distress message such as the  Ocean Signal MOB1.   Although such beacons are currently more expensive some have the advantage that they can receive an acknowledgement message.  They will send a Individual Distress Relay call to the MMSI (of your own boat) programmed in the the unit. They cant send an All Ships distress unless manually activated.  Tui has a Standard Horizon floating DSC equipped hand held VHF radio that also flashes a light if it falls in water. [Thanks to Ken Goodings for reminding me to mention DSC] I have sometimes carried this on watch alone but it is quite bulky (as it floats I suppose). A DSC message has the advantage also that it will set of a loud alarm, certainly on Tui it is one of the louder and more attention seeking alarms. It will also wake up the watch keepers on bridges of ships in a way perhaps an AIS beacon would not. 

In the mean time I will be fitting my all my life jackets with Sea Marshall water activated 121.5 beacons that I bought second hand, once I have thoroughly tested them in a Faraday cage, changed their 9v lithium batteries and O-rings and checked they are water tight. One advantage of these units over many proper PLBs is that the 9v battery is fairly easy to replace. I will also fit my RT-100 permanently maybe with an external alarm and antenna.

Sea Marshall 121.5 MOB beacons. The landyard is an antenna that goes around the users neck and lights up when active.

The battery is a lithium 9v PP3 type, and is "user replaceable" with care. Lithium batteries last longer unused and and work at lower temperatures than alkali batteries. Some of the ones I bought had had the batteries in 14 years and they still gave off a signal and lit up in test mode.

Edits: 19/9/2016 Added info from later comments on EPIRB decoders and from Ken Goodings on FaceBook SSB and Offshore Email group  re DSC